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Buy the book at (8th edition, 2008): Nutrition and Physical Degeneration

Nutrition and

Physical Degeneration

A Comparison of Primitive and Modern Diets
and Their Effects


Weston A. Price, MS., D.D.S., F.A.G.D.
Member Research Commission, American Dental Association
Member American Association of Physical Anthropologists
Author, "Dental Infections, Oral and Systemic"

Foreword by

Earnest Albert Hooton
Professor of Anthropology,
Harvard University

With 134 figures

Paul B. Hoeber, Inc
Medical Book Department of Harper & Brothers
New York London
Copyright, 1939, by Paul B. Hoeber, Inc.

All rights reserved. This book or any
part thereof must not be reproduced
in any form without permission of the
publishers. Printed in the United
States of America.

To that kindred soul

My Wife

who has assisted me so greatly
on these difficult expeditions,
this book is lovingly dedicated.


List of Illustrations
Foreword by Earnest A. Hooton

  1. Why Seek Wisdom from Primitive Races
  2. The Progressive Decline of Modern Civilization
  3. Isolated and Modernized Swiss
  4. Isolated and Modernized Gaelics
  5. Isolated and Modernized Eskimos
  6. Primitive and Modernized North American Indians
  7. Isolated and Modernized Melanesians
  8. Isolated and Modernized Polynesians
  9. Isolated and Modernized African Tribes
  10. Isolated and Modernized Australian Aborigines
  11. Isolated and Modernized Torres Strait Islanders
  12. Isolated and Modernized New Zealand Maori
  13. Ancient Civilizations of Peru
  14. Isolated and Modernized Peruvian Indians
  15. Characteristics of Primitive and Modernized Dietaries
  16. Primitive Control of Dental Caries
  17. One Origin of Physical Deformities
  18. Prenatal Nutritional Deformities and Disease Types
  19. Physical, Mental and Moral Deterioration
  20. Soil Depletion and Plant and Animal Deterioration
  21. Practical Applications of Primitive Wisdom

List of illustrations

  1. Loetschental Valley in Switzerland
  2. Hand-mill used by natives in Loetschental Valley
  3. Natives of modern Swiss valley showing normal design of face and dental arches when adequate nutrition is provided
  4. Natives of Loetschental Valley showing tooth decay and deformed dental arches typical of those living on modern foods
  5. A typical "black-house" on the Isle of Lewis. Natives of the Isle of Lewis
  6. Tooth decay in native of Isle of Harris living on modern foods and excellent teeth of natives living on primitive foods
  7. Gaelic children living on native foods
  8. Variations in growth of oats fertilized with varying quantities of smoke-thatch
  9. Primitive Alaskan Eskimos showing excellent facial and dental arch formation
  10. Primitive Alaskan mothers
  11. Alaskan Eskimos showing effect on teeth of modern foods
  12. Defective teeth and dental arches in Eskimo children living on modern foods
  13. Dried eggs of salmon are an important item of nutrition
  14. Facial and dental arch deformity in white boy born in Alaska and living on modern foods
  15. Family of forest Indians of northern Canada
  16. Modernized Indian children with tuberculosis
  17. Indian women and girls typical of those living on primitive foods
  18. Indian women typical of those living on modern foods
  19. Deformed facial formation in children of first generation after adoption of modern foods by parents
  20. Primitive Indians of central Canada: parents developed on native foods, children on modern foods
  21. Typical crippled children found among Indians living on modern foods
  22. Skulls of primitive Indians showing superb dental arches
  23. Skulls of primitive Indians showing excellent bone formation
  24. Seminole Indians, typical of those living on native foods
  25. Dental caries in Seminole Indians living on modern foods
  26. Seminole Indian children showing changes in facial and dental arch form which result from modern foods
  27. Skulls of pre-Columbian Indians of Florida
  28. Melanesians typical of those living under native conditions
  29. Facial bone formation in Melanesians living on native foods
  30. Fiji council house and hereditary Fiji monarch
  31. Tooth decay in natives of Fiji Islands living on imported food
  32. Tooth decay and changes in arch formation in first generation after adoption of modern foods
  33. Perfect dental arches of Polynesians living under native conditions
  34. Tahitians showing dental caries due to imported foods
  35. Changes in teeth and in dental arch formation of Polynesians living on modern foods
  36. Samoans typical of excellent facial and dental arch formation when living on native foods. Children with formation typical of those born of under-nourished parents
  37. Hawaiian family showing changes in facial form in younger children of same family
  38. Tooth decay and tuberculosis as a result of under-nutrition in a Polynesian girl
  39. Members of Masai tribe illustrating excellent results of diet of meat, milk and blood
  40. Method by which blood is drawn from steer
  41. Facial and dental arch development in African tribes living on native foods
  42. Facial and dental arch development in members of Belgian Congo tribe living on native foods
  43. Pygmies of Belgian Congo
  44. Dental caries in Africans who have adopted modern foods
  45. Changes in facial and dental arch development in children of first generation after adoption by parents of modern foods
  46. Africans showing facial deformities due to diet of modern foods
  47. Africans showing facial deformities in first generation after adoption by parents of modern foods
  48. African children showing a marked depression of middle third of face due to malnutrition of parents
  49. Camels' milk is an important item of nutrition in Asia and Africa
  50. Facial deformities found in boys and girls living in Cairo under modern conditions
  51. African children walking on "all fours"
  52. Typical Aborigines of Australia
  53. Magnificent dental arches and teeth found in Aborigines
  54. Dental caries in Aborigines living on modern foods
  55. Changes in teeth and arch formation in modernized Aborigines
  56. Disturbance in facial growth in modernized Aborigines
  57. Deformity patterns produced in Aborigines by modern food
  58. Effects of malnutrition in Australian Aborigines living on a reservation
  59. Typical Aborigine mothers with their children
  60. Comparison of skull of typical Aborigine with that of Peking Man
  61. Inhabitants of islands north of Australia have splendidly built bodies with fine facial and dental arch form
  62. Comparison of facial and dental arch formation in native and in white children on Thursday Island
  63. Good physical development of natives of Hammond Island
  64. Dental arches in natives on the islands of the Great Barrier Reef
  65. Contrast in facial and dental arch form between primitive and modernized natives
  66. Deformed dental arches in white children on Thursday Island
  67. Tooth decay in white children in Torres Strait islands
  68. Dental clinic maintained by New Zealand Government
  69. The Maori had the reputation of having the finest teeth and bodies of any race in the world
  70. Tooth decay is found in modernized Maori
  71. The whites living in New Zealand have poor teeth
  72. Facial deformities in Maori born after adoption of modern foods
  73. Maori skulls showing fine physical development
  74. Maori demonstrating some of the accessory essentials obtained from the sea
  75. Trephined skulls of ancient peoples of Peru
  76. Trephined skulls with gold plates in position
  77. Pottery jar depicting ancient Peruvian surgery. Bone showing healing of fracture
  78. Skulls of fishermen of Chimu culture
  79. Ancient aqueduct of Peru
  80. Descendants of ancient Chimus showing flattening of back of head
  81. Some descendants of the ancient Chimus are still living in a few fishing villages in the north of Peru
  82. Stone fortress built by primitive people of Andean Sierra
  83. Typical skulls of High Sierra Indians
  84. Descendants of the Tauhuanocan Indians of Peru
  85. The Quichua Indians living in the High Andes are descendants of the Incas
  86. Indians of the High Andes have magnificent physiques
  87. Indians of the High Andes have superb facial and dental arch development
  88. Introduction of modern foods to Sierra Indians produced wreckage of physiques
  89. Jungle Indians of the Amazon Basin
  90. Facial and dental arch development of the jungle Indians is superb
  91. Excellence of skeletal development of jungle Indians as expressed in faces and dental arches
  92. A marked change in facial form with crowding of teeth occurs in jungle Indians born after adoption of modern foods
  93. Rapid healing of fractured femur in boy suffering from malnutrition, after institution of proper nutrition
  94. Improvement accomplished by proper nutrition in boy suffering from inflammatory rheumatism
  95. Effect of different wheat products on rats
  96. Teeth showing permeability of decayed dentin to silver nitrate
  97. Three cases illustrating how nature can close an exposure of pulp due to dental caries
  98. Four Melanesians born on four different islands look like brothers but are not blood relations
  99. Four Polynesian girls living on different islands are not related though they look like sisters
  100. Disturbed heredity: two Peruvian Indian fathers with good physical development and their sons who show defects
  101. Disturbed heredity illustrated by father and son of Wakamba tribe of Central Africa
  102. Disturbed heredity in Quicha Indians
  103. Disturbed heredity in Australian Aborigines
  104. Two Maori sisters, and two white sisters in Peru, showing facial changes that may occur in same generation with change from primitive to modern diet by parents
  105. Six brothers showing facial changes in same generation due to change from primitive to modern foods by parents
  106. Change in facial form in two younger brothers, corresponding to change in diet by parents
  107. Natives from islands north of Australia showing progressive facial change in same family due to change in foods
  108. White girls in New Zealand illustrate progressive lengthening and narrowing of face and hips
  109. New Zealand Maori illustrating progressive change in facial form of two younger boys
  110. New Zealand Maori illustrating marked undersize and deformity of feet in second child in family
  111. Modernized Peruvian Indian boy showing disturbed development of face and foot
  112. Modernized coastal Indian of Ecuador showing serious physical deformities
  113. Eskimo children ill in tuberculosis ward of the government hospital at Juneau
  114. Patients in the Maori hospital in New Zealand showing marked facial under-development
  115. Girls in tuberculosis ward of New Zealand hospital for Maori show marked facial and dental arch disturbances
  116. Native Hawaiian children with tuberculosis, showing marked disturbances of facial form and dental arch development
  117. Deformities of pig due to lack of Vitamin A in mothers diet
  118. Deformities due to lack of adequate Vitamin A in mothers diet
  119. Many young of modern domestic animals are born with deformities
  120. Puppies born with physical defects due to deficiency of Vitamin A in father
  121. Typical deformities in domestic animals
  122. Criminals. Were their unsocial traits related to incomplete brain organization associated with prenatal injury
  123. Marked lack of normal facial development in notorious young criminals
  124. Typical Mongoloid defective
  125. Physical changes in Mongoloid type due to movement of maxillary bones to stimulate pituitary gland in base of brain
  126. X-ray pictures showing position of teeth before and during operation to move maxillary bones
  127. Twin boys with same deformity of dental arch
  128. Boys typical of group in special school for backward children
  129. Fiji woman who has gone long distance to gather special food needed for production of healthy children
  130. African woman who has come down the mountains to gather special plants of which the ashes prevent goiter
  131. X-rays of teeth of three children in one family show progressive injury in younger children
  132. X-rays illustrating progressive injury in two younger children in family
  133. X-rays comparing deformities of facial form in child born after long labor with better facial form in sister born after short labor
  134. Girl showing relationship between lack of pelvic development and deformity of face


South Sea Islands
New Zealand


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